Resources

Short Videos


ROOT Testbed Overview at Telefonica (Madrid)

Luis Miguel Contreras Murillo (Technology Expert at Global CTIO unit in Telefonica) introduces the facilities of the Telefonica Technology and Automation LAB hosting the test campaign of the ROOT project.

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ROOT Project Overview at LINKS Foundation (Turin)

Are you curious about the objectives of the ROOT project? ROOT project researcher, Dr. Alex Minetto from Politecnico di Torino, presents ROOT in this short video.

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ROOT’s Featured Research Papers and Scientific Contributions

[1] Pini, M., Minetto, A., Vesco, A., Berbecaru, D., Murillo, L. M. C., Nemry, P., … & Callewaert, K. (2021, June). Satellite-derived Time for Enhanced Telecom Networks Synchronization: the ROOT Project. In 2021 IEEE 8th International Workshop on Metrology for AeroSpace (MetroAeroSpace) (pp. 288-293). IEEE.

[2] Margaria, D., & Vesco, A. (2021). Trusted GNSS-Based Time Synchronization for Industry 4.0 Applications. Applied Sciences11(18), 8288.

[3] Barbecaru, D., Lioy A., Attack strategies and countermeasures in transport-based time synchronization solutions, IDC 2021 conference – Sep 16-18, 2021, Online Conference, Italy http://www.idc2021.unirc.it/cfp.html

[4] Nemry, P., Freulon, F., & Sleewaegen, J. M. (2021, September). Combining Navigation Message Authentication with Strong Interference Robustness, a New State-of-the-Art for GNSS Network Synchronisation. In Proceedings of the 34th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2021) (pp. 1697-1720).

[5] [Presentation only] Pini, M., Minetto, A., Nemry, P., Rat, B., Contreras Murillo L. M.,, De Francesca I., Margaria D., Vesco A., Berbecaru, Callewaert, Dovis, Lioy Protection of GNSS-based Synchronization in Communication Networks: The ROOT Project

[6] [Submitted to ION GNSS+ 2022] Minetto, A., Polidori B. D., Pini, M., Dovis, F., Investigation on the actual robustness of GNSS-based timing distribution under meaconing and spoofing interferences


Project Brochure


Press Release

Download the first version of the ROOT Project Press Release


Reference Documents


[1] H. Li, L. Han, R. Duan and G. M. Garner, “Analysis of the Synchronization Requirements of 5g and Corresponding Solutions,” in IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 52-58, March 2017, doi: 10.1109/MCOMSTD.2017.1600768ST.

[2] A. Bauch, and P. Whibberley. (2017). Reliable time from GNSS signalsInside GNSS44, 38.

[3] Thongtan, T., Tirawanichakul, P., & Satirapod, C. (2017). Precise receiver clock offset estimations according to each Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) timescalesArtificial Satellites52(4), 99-108.

[4] Niu, X., Yan, K., Zhang, T., Zhang, Q., Zhang, H., & Liu, J. (2015). Quality evaluation of the pulse per second (PPS) signals from commercial GNSS receiversGPS solutions19(1), 141-150.

[5] M. Lipiński, T. Włostowski, J. Serrano and P. Alvarez, “White rabbit: a PTP application for robust sub-nanosecond synchronization,” 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Precision Clock Synchronization for Measurement, Control and Communication, Munich, 2011, pp. 25-30, doi: 10.1109/ISPCS.2011.6070148.

[6] Farkas, J., Varga, B., Miklós, G., & Sachs, J. (2019). 5G-TSN integration meets networking requirementsEricsson Technology Review.


[7] Morales Ferre, R., de la Fuente, A., & Lohan, E. S. (2019). Jammer classification in GNSS bands via machine learning algorithms. Sensors19(22), 4841.

[8] CISA, Time Guidance for Network Operators, Chief Information Officers and Chief Information Security Officers

[9] Guidance on Essential Critical Infrastructure Workforce

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)


ITU-T Recommendations G.826x and G.827x series (G.8200-G.8299: Synchronization, quality and availability targets

ITU-T Recommendations G.8272 : Timing characteristics of primary reference time clocks

TP-GSTR-GNSS – Considerations on the use of GNSS as a primary time reference in telecommunications

3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)


3GPP technical specification TS 38.133, NR; Requirements for support of radio resource management

3GPP technical specification TS 38.401, NG-RAN; Architecture Description

3GPP technical specification TS 23.501, System architecture for the 5G System (5GS)

3GPP technical specification TR 38.801, Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Study on new radio access technology: Radio access architecture and interfaces

3GPP technical specification TS 38.104, NR; Base Stationv (BS) radio transmission and reception

Standardization Documents (IEEE)


IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems,” in IEEE Std 1588-2002 , vol., no., pp.1-154, 31 Oct. 2002, doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2002.94144.

IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems,” in IEEE Std 1588-2002 , vol., no., pp.1-154, 31 Oct. 2002, doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2002.94144.

IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks–Timing and Synchronization for Time-Sensitive Applications,” in IEEE Std 802.1AS-2020 (Revision of IEEE Std 802.1AS-2011) , vol., no., pp.1-421, 19 June 2020, doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2020.9121845.

IEEE Draft Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks – Timing and Synchronization for Time-Sensitive Applications,” in IEEE P802.1AS-Rev/D6.0 December 2017 , vol., no., pp.1-496, 9 Feb. 2018.

IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems (IEEE 1588-2019)”, June 16, 2020


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